Είναι. Σοφόν τό σαφές   ISSN 2226 - 0897
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Scholastic tradition and Renaissance humanism. Thesaurus.

German idealism: Sources & Influences. Critical reviews. Summaries & Annotations.

Methodological studies. Antique tradition and Patristics.

Сontemporary Philosophical and Theological researches. Site Map

Vol. 3, No. 1/2 (5/6) 2014 "EINAI: The Problems of Philosophy and Theology"
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Scientific-Educational Centre for Problems of Religion, Philosophy, Culture to SUAI (Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation) presents

"ΕΙΝΑΙ: The Problems of Philosophy and Theology" Volume 3, No. 1/2 (5/6) 2014 (December, 2014)

Сontemporary Philosophical and Theological researches

  • N. A. Grjakalov. The Orgies of Overconsumption, or Fight for Leisure - Н.А. Грякалов. Оргии сверхпотребления, или Борьба за досуг - PDF текст в PDF, 364 KB.

    The analytics of waste, in particular of waste of time, as basic phenomenon of human being is represented in the article. Using the extensive anthropological material the author demonstrates the interrelation of its various sociocultural avatars (ritual of potlatch, love magic, archaic war, the Roman navmakhiyas, the Florentine
    burnings of vanities etc.) with the ontology of prestige. A waste makes prestige, but the prestige is unique ontological procedure of realization and problematization of human being as a whole. Thus, existential-ontological dimension of unproductive waste is exposed. The reconstruction of historical transformations of timing’s measurement and collective sensuality of time is given as illustration.

  • A. K. Sekatskiy. The Collection of Bodies and Fabrication of Personal being - А.К. Секацкий. Ассортимент тел и репертуары телесности - PDF текст в PDF, 89 KB.
  • Annotation: The article contains new approach to the traditional phenomenology of human body. The reality of our body differs from such thing as organism, being in some (own) body is not coincide with physical or organic matter at all. The modes of our body existence are at the same time the main phenomena of human life,
    so we may speak about the collection of bodies or somatorium. Our soul needs this whole somatorium in order to exist. By the way, not all our bodies are suitable to research though we have experience about all of them. In this article are represented some existential, social and somatic effects of such real plurality. The article also tries to answer why the fact of plurality of our bodies is so deeply hidden.

  • A. N. Isakov. Philosophy, theology, christian myth and the truth of the revelation - А. Н. Исаков. Философия, богословие, христианский миф и истина откровения - PDF текст в PDF, 231 KB.

    For philosophical thinking truth of belief is, firstly, a problem of interpretation and, secondly, a problem of a choice of that way of thought of God who is crossed which actual thinking of Being. Thus it is possible to conclude, that the philosophy hasn’t truth of belief, and doesn’t substitute it for thinking, but follows it, because its asking about Being isn’t full without asking about God, and the last is unclear
    without a belief context.

  • S. L. Fokin. Hölderlin, Lacoue-Labarthe and joiner Zimmer - С.Л. Фокин. Гельдерлин, Лаку-Лабарт и столяр Циммер - PDF текст в PDF, 224 KB.

    The paper analyses an original conception of translation. The former
    is connected to metaphysics from the one side and, from the other, is a sort of existential theater experience. In this kind of practice the poet translater goes so deep into the linguistic undertaking, that the poetry threatens with madness and silence. At the same time, in this type of translation or linguistic revolution the poet can solve political
    problems of his time and his fatherland, trying to consider the former between those.

German idealism: Sources and Influences

  • I. A. Protopopov. The concept of nothing and the principle of negativity
    in the Logic of Hegel - И. А. Протопопов. Понятие «ничто» и принцип негативности в Логике Гегеля - PDF текст в PDF, 434 KB.

    This article devoted to the investigation of the concept of nothing and
    the principle of negativity in the Logic of Hegel. The author shows that nothing, conceivable of Hegel in a positive way is the ontological basis of negativity, which is revealed in the form of a certain principle negation, related with itself, causing to the development of thinking in its identity with the being. The certain negation in Hegel’s speculative dialectic has, primarily, the form of the immediate negativity of pure being, which in his identity with nothing is the beginning of the existence of all things, then, the form, mediated negativity essence, conceivable in reflective definitions of identity, difference and contradiction and the highest form of absolute negativity of concept, which in the opposite to each other moments of universal,
    particular and singular revealed as absolute, positing himself the subject.

  • A. A. Ivanenko. Article Hegel’s «Faith and knowledge» between philosophy
    of identity and the «Phenomenology of spirit» - А.А. Иваненко. Работа Г.В.Ф. Гегеля «Вера и знание» между философией тождества и «Феноменологией духа». Предисловие к русскому переводу первых двух частей - PDF текст в PDF, 204 KB.

    The article highlights the history of the publication of the «Critical journal of philosophy», which in 1802 was first published work of G. W. F. Hegel «Faith and knowledge». In this regard highlights the Hegelian conception of philosophical criticism of this period of his philosophical development, which was the basis of the ideological program of this journal. On the basis of the starting points of this
    critique is installed Hegelian view of that period about the philosophy and its connection with Schelling’s philosophy of identity, as well as upcoming path differences of the two great idealists.

Scholastic tradition and Renaissance humanism

  • V. L. Ivanov. Luis de Molina SJ and the beginnings of scholastic theology
    of the Society of Jesus. Translator’s foreword to the publication of the 52nd Disputation of Concordia - В. Л. Иванов. Луис де Молина, ОИ, и начала схоластической теологии Общества Иисуса. Предисловие к публикации перевода 52-й диспутации «Конкордии» - PDF текст в PDF, 343 KB.

    The article is a historiographical introduction to the translation (with
    commentaries) of the 52nd Disputation «Whether in God there is knowledge of future contingents. Also, the way in which freedom of choice and the contingency of things accord with this knowledge» of the Concordia by the Jesuit theologian Luis de Molina (1535–1600). It shows the significance of Molina within the history of posttridentian Scholasticism, describes his academic biography, outlines his philosophical and theological works, explicates the genre and delineates the general scheme of his main scholastic Oeuvre, i. e. «Concordia» (1588). Besides, the article analyzes the structure of the 52nd Disputation and gives the reasons for the choice of this treatise for the translation. Additionally, the features of the present translation
    are specified and some difficult cases in the process of rendering Latin scholastic terminology are mentioned. Finally, the article contains the bibliography of the editions of works by Molina, his scholastic predecessors and contemporaries, as well as of the most important studies on his doctrine of scientia media.

  • O. M. Bashkina, V. L. Ivanov. Translator’s foreword to «On the freedom from
    necessity in decision making» by G. W. Leibniz - О.М. Башкина. В. Л. Иванов. Предисловие к переводу трактата Лейбница «О свободе от необходимости в выборе» - PDF текст в PDF, 194 KB.

    The article is a historiographical and bibliographical introduction
    to the translation from Latin of small treatise by Leibniz «On the freedom from necessity in decision making» (ca. 1680–1684). The article provides reader with the bibliographical details about the treatise and outlines the range of problems Leibniz deals with in this small work. Besides, it shows the role of this treatise as a good example representing a lot of Leibniz’s Latin fragments and working projects dealing mostly with the problems of theology and metaphysics.

Antique tradition and Patristics

  • M. N. Varlamova. The concept of composition. From element to organism- М.Н. Варламова. Понятие сложности у Аристотеля. От элемента к организму - PDF текст в PDF, 367 KB.

    According to Aristotle, the science of nature deals with the elements
    and the animated beings, i.e. organisms. Both of them are composed of principles, that is of form and matter, which are related to each other as actuality and potentiality. If one considers the movable as being composed of the principles, the composition comes to the fore as the being’s character that determines its ousia and nature. This article analyzes the concept of the composed being in terms of the Aristotle’s science of nature, treats the different ways of composition of matter, and explores the concept of function in regard to the organism.

  • G. I. Benevitch. Apperception of Proclus’ polemic with Plotinus on matter and
    evil in the Corpus Areopagiticum - Г.И. Беневич. Апперцепция полемики Прокла Диадоха с Плотином о материи и зле в Corpus Areopagiticum - PDF текст в PDF, 462 KB.

    The article deals with the ways of appropriation and transformation
    of the Neoplatonist’s teaching on matter and evil in the Corpus Areopagiticum. It is shown that Christian authors (Areopagite and his scholiast, John of Scythopolis), while taking the philosophical definition of matter as τὸ μὴ ὄν, differ from the Neoplatonists
    in their understanding of the goodness

  • Е. N. Syrtsova. The Apocalypse of Theotokos and the question of the mercifull
    eschatology in II–V c. - Е.Н. Сырцова. Апокалипсис Богородицы и вопрос о милосердной эсхатологии во II–V вв. - PDF текст в PDF, 447 KB.

    The studies of the greek manuscripts of the Apocalypse of Theotokos
    in comparison with the contest of the Apocalypse of Peter, the Apocalypse of Paul, oldest versions of the Dormition of Theotokos, the Book of Henoch (II), the Apocalypse of Esdra and other apocryphal texts allow to reconsider the traditional representation
    about the late origin of the Apocalypse of Theotokos, not to exclude
    its appearance in III–IV c., and to note more reserved, if not polemical position of the author of both redactions of the Apocalypse of Paul relatively the idea of the final complete abolition of the other world’s punishments. The ideas of the final mercy for the damned sinners are considered as coherent in moral and anagogical senses with the conception of apocatastasis of the hope of Clement of Alexandria
    and the idea of the final apocatastasis of Origen and Gregory of Nyssa.

  • T. A. Shchukin. Theological and historical context of an anonymous treatise
    «Of the Common Nature and the Trinity» - Т.А. Щукин. Богословско-исторический контекст анонимного трактата «Об общей природе и Троице» - PDF текст в PDF, 371 KB.

    An anonimous anti-monophysitе treatise, most probably compiled in
    550–556 AD, comprises a teaching, which is nearest to Leontius of Byzantium’s theology both in terminology and in conception. The treatise also appears as an example of the fact that intra-monophysite discussions on the tritheism bore an actual meaning for the chalcedonian milieu as well.

Methodological studies


  • S. D. Kleiner, M. M. Pozdnev. Zielinski’s «chronological inconsistency»:
    The Epinomis - С.Д. Клейнер, М.М. Позднев. Послесловие к статье Ф.Ф. Зелинского - PDF текст в PDF, 289 KB.

    Thaddeus Zielinski’s «law of chronological inconsistency», as is generally known among classical scholars and far beyond, concerns the impossibility of simultaneous actions in Homeric epic. Zielinski defines four modes of dealing with such actions. 1. One action remains hanging while the other continues. This case is the most apparent; its discovery seems to have inspired the scholar to point out the further three, which are by far less universal. 2. One action unfolds but the course of the other is only traced; it will meet the first at some point. Ex. gr. Paris meets Hector at the gate but his arming which took place at the same time with the parting of Hector and Andromache was not described. 3. The parallel action is not shown
    at all which leaves the «painful gap». Menelaus is wounded by Pandar’s arrow, Agamemnon cares about his treatment, and suddenly we are told that the Trojans are attacking with all their mass. 4. To encompass two simultaneous actions a period
    of time is arbitrarily set. Achilles is maltreating Hectors body for twelve days because the poet could not come back and tell how the plan of ransoming the body comes to Priamus. The rebirth of interest in Zielinski’s law in the last two decades manifested by a number of discussions and a selective English translation of his German
    essay on the subject has not yet resulted in a thorough monographic study partly because the reference works still exist mostly in Russian (apart of the above republished paper, his first contribution to Homeric philology, one should study «The old and new ways in Homeric question», a witty review, probably the best of all Zielinski’s
    works on Homer besides the great «Homeric psychology» which was translated into English by Natalia Kotsyba in 2002) partly due to the marginalizing the principle of inconsistency as commonplace in modern folkloristics and narratology. The examples given by Zielinski should however be re-examined. The main point of interest lies in demonstrating that Zielinski’s interpretations are largely influenced by his age. He wants, for instance, to be told how the Trojans came to the idea that they should attack the Achaeans after Pandar’s shot. This is the point of view of a tolerant European of the «Vorkriegszeit». But by narrating about negotiations in Troy Homer would destroy the effect of surprise; the impression of Trojans as treacherous enemies
    would be lost. Zielinski thinks that Achill should meet Priamus and give him back his son’s body just after the funeral of Patroclus, and then go to sleep having his conscience calmed. But for Homer this would destroy the retardation effect provided by those long days of letting the body unburied and abused and of quarrelling in the Olympus. In other cases Homer, as well as the narrators of Russian Byliny or other folk epic songs, concentrates on the act which is of the greatest interest (as is the parting of Hector and Andromache) leaving the parallel acts without care. Homer shows no incapacity in describing simultaneous actions as simultaneous (which in fact he does, for example, as he tells about the coming back of the Phaeacian ship at the very same time as Odysseus wakes up in Ithaca). What his narrative style really exhibits is economy of the audience’s attention.

Critical reviews

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